Programming in Java (I)1

Introduction to Java

A Computer Program (or Code) is simply a sequence of instruction(s) and decision(s) used to instruct a computer's CPU to perform certain and/or specified action(s); and Programming (or Coding) is essentially the art of designing and implementing computer programs. Thus, a collection of computer programs is known as: Software.

Java Fundamentals 1

Basically, a data type refers to the kind or group of elements that can be stored and managed by an identifier. In Java, there exist two (2) broad categories of data types, viz: Primitive Data Types and Non-Primitive (or Derived) Data Types.

Java Fundamentals 2

On one hand, Primitive Data Types are types of data which have been naturally defined in the core of Java programming language. On the other hand, Non-Primitive (or Derived) Data Types are types of data which are usually derivatives of one or more primitive data types; and they are uniquely defined in separate class segments that exist within Java's plugin library.

Decisions 1

Decision making is a common real-world problem that we experience in almost every aspect of our lives as humans. For example, when we wake up in the morning and try to decide whether to (or not) wear a particular clothing, to (or not) wear a particular shoe, to (or not) eat a particular meal, to (or not) go for a particular party, etc.

Decisions 2

In the real-world domain, we are regularly challenged with scenarios or situations which involve making decisions in the form of either Yes or No responses to each scenario or situation.

Loops 1

Realistically, as humans, we perform a lot of routine and repetitive tasks on daily basis with reference to our work places, homes, schools, etc. For example: every human has at least one (1) shower ever day of the week with respect to each month of the year.

Loops 2

As humans, if our daily (or repetitive) tasks were to be automated; we can simply define a repetition mechanism such that, on daily basis, the expected task is performed as scheduled.

Arrays of Data 1

In programming, there exist an (abstract) data structure which is known as: array. Thus, arrays may be employed toward aggregating values of a specific data type, so as to facilitate effective and efficient data management with respect to these aggregated values.

Arrays of Data 2

In other words, an array is simply a collection of several (variable) values possessing the same data type. Hence, employing arrays in programming usually require the actualization of a Declaration step and an Instantiation step.

ArrayLists of Data

Just like arrays, an ArrayList is an (abstract) data structure which may be employed towards aggregating values of a specific Non-Primitive data type. However, in opposition to arrays which possess a fixed size after its declaration and instantiation, ArrayLists are dynamic with respect to their sizes such that they can dynamically grow and adjust to accommodate newer items/elements into the ArrayList.

OOP Concepts in Java

The underlying concept of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is not far-fetched; as humans in today's world, we do experience and employ the concept of OOP in some (if not most) of our daily routines and/or activities. A typical real-world exemplification of the concept of Object-Oriented Programming can be illustrated using the mobile-phone technology. Thus, every cellphone, irrespective of its make/brand, possesses a set of attributes and a set of functions.

Arrays and ArrayLists of Objects

Objects are instances of class segments. Thus, just like Primitive data types, objects can be organized into an Array, an ArrayList, etc. The process of creating an Array or an ArrayList of objects is quite similar to the process of creating an Array (or ArrayList) of Primitive data. Since an object is technically considered as a Non-Primitive data type in Java, the initial default value present in a newly created Array/ArrayList of objects is null.

OOP using Java

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Programming in PHP2

Introduction to PHP

PHP is a server-side scripting language which was originally developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. Moreover, PHP is a recursive acronym which denotes: "PHP Hypertext Preprocessor". PHP is translated via an Interpreter; and as such, it is an Interpreted Language.

Fundamentals of PHP 1

PHP is a dynamically (or weakly) typed language. Thus, when declaring variables and constants in PHP, there is no requirement for an explicit specification of the data-type. Also, an advantageous feature of PHP lies in the fact that its scripts can directly be embedded into HTML webpages.

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